HomeNetworking BasicsWhat Is a DNS Server

What Is a DNS Server

What Is a DNS Server?

With the advent of increased internet consumption, users have become more mindful of the building components. One such component is the DNS server, acronymic of the Domain Name System. It’s basically the internet’s phonebook. For instance, when you type down forbes.com or google.com, DNS Server will look for the website by lining out the correct IP address.

These IP addresses are used for communicating with the CDN edge server or the origin servers for the prime purpose of accessing the website. The DNS servers are actually the machines responsible for answering and proceeding with the DNS queries. Understanding the server is crucial; this is the program or device for providing the servers to clients (programs).

The DNS clients are usually built in the operating systems of mobile phones and desktops that allow interaction with servers through web browsers.

DNS Servers Resolving The Queries – The Process

If we consider the DNS queries without cache, four servers work in the fusion for delivering the IP address to the client. These servers include root nameservers, authoritative nameservers, recursive resolvers, and TLD nameservers. The DNS resolver is the server designed to receive queries from the client and interact with other servers for lining out the IP address.

Once the request is received by the resolver, it starts behaving like the client with which it starts querying other DNS servers. First of all, the root nameserver is queried as it’s the first step for resolving the domain names. Then, it responds to the resolver with the TLD DNS server, which is purposed to store information domain information.

Further, the TLD server is queried that responds with the domain’s authoritative nameserver (it shares the IP address). Then, the authoritative nameserver is queried by the recursor that shares the origin server’s IP address. As a result, the resolver will pass the origin server’s IP address back to the client. Subsequently, the client can initiate the query to the server (the origin).

Then, the origin server will send the website data, that’s displayed after interpretation through the web browser.

Consequences Of Failed DNS Servers

Ranging from hardware issues to power outages and cyberattacks, all of them can stop the DNS server. However, modern DNS servers have better redundancy. For instance, the TLC nameservers and DNS servers create a backup of the users’ recursive resolvers. Besides, the websites even have authoritative nameservers.

When it concerns the outage in DNS servers, there might be delays regarding the immense number of requests the backup servers are handling. However, only the huge-scale DNS outage will adversely influence internet availability. That’s the prime reason that managed DNS services are on the rise since they offer server protection from external attacks and malware.

Types Of Servers

DNS Recursor

This server is specially designed to receive the queries from the web browsers (through the client machines). Consequently, the recursor will make additional requests as it helps satisfy the DNS queries of the clients.

Root Nameserver

This server is actually the initial step for transforming the hostnames (the human-readable ones) into the IP addresses. Generally, this server acts as a reference for specific locations.

TLD Nameserver

This is the top-level domain server, which acts as a step to search for the IP addresses and their hosts. Also, it hosts the hostname’s last part, such as “.com” or “.org” in the website addresses.

Authoritative Nameserver

This is the last portion of the query (the nameserver queries). In case access to the requested record is available, the IP address will be returned for a hostname to the recursor. This will go back to the point where the initial request was made but with the information.

Primary DNS Servers & Secondary DNS Servers

These DNS servers are usually configured with the computer devices or routers whenever the users connect to the ISP. Two DNS servers are added to ensure the availability of contingency server availability in case one fails. As a result, the second available DNS server will resolve the hostnames and queries.

The bottom line is that various DNS servers can provide better internet speed and connectivity, which is often deciphered by the user’s proximity to the servers. For instance, the server of the ISP will always be closer than Google’s. For this purpose, the users often change their servers to access better connections!

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